what is environment

What is the Environment?

The environment is just the circumstances in which we live. Given the diversity of the world we live in, it is difficult to properly classify the environment. However, there are two sorts of environments that are widely accepted: the natural or geographical environment and the man-made environment. Let’s first examine the environment before talking about it.

Types of Environment

The classification of the environment generally divides it into two categories: geographical and manmade environments, which are both described in the page below.

Geographical Environment

The terrestrial environment, which is the result of complex natural and environmental factors, is referred to as the geographical environment. Regardless of the fact that it developed independently of humanity, it is a result of direct contact between nature and human culture. The geographical environment is defined by the disciplines of climatology, geology, biogeography, and so on. They are direct manifestations of how human culture conceptualises the earth’s topography.

Natural environment examples include the earth’s surface, rivers, mountains, deserts, land, water, seas, volcanoes, and so on.

Man-Made Environment

Because man cannot live directly in his geographical environment, he constructs some of his own environmental circumstances to adapt to it. This is a man-made or human-made environment, a creation of humans. A social environment is another name for a man-made environment. It comes in two varieties

  1. Inner Environment
  2. Outer Environment

World Environment Day

World Environment Day (WED) is celebrated annually on 5 June.

Environmental Pollution


Humans have a significant effect on the planet. Human activities such as transportation, industry, and agriculture produce environmental pollution, which is a catch-all phrase for numerous sorts of introduced pollutants that can affect ecosystems, natural processes, and biological life.

Understanding the effects of our activities, from air pollution to water pollution, climate change to smog, is the first step in handling environmental challenges.

Air pollution

Air pollution is produced by hazardous gases and aerosols emitted by both natural and human processes. The most air pollution is due to human activities, such as the use of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and oil for power, transportation, and industry.

Water pollution

Water pollution from microbial infections, fertilisers, and toxic compounds contaminates both freshwater and saltwater environments, endangering aquatic life and public health. One noticeable example of water pollution is agricultural pollution.  After intense rain events, agricultural fertilizers, pesticides and particulate matter from eroded soil can enter streams, rivers, lakes, bays, and even oceans. The resulting kill fishes, dead zone and drinking water crises are common.

Plastic pollution

Around 380 million tonnes of plastic generated each year will reach the environment, and about 8 million tonnes will enter the ocean. Plastic bottles and garbage turn into “microplastics” when they break down in the environment, which are tiny plastic particles that get into food chains, soil, rain, snow, and even our lungs in significant amounts. According to recent research, humans consume almost as much microplastic each week as undetermined effects on their health.

Soil contamination

Contaminated soils are common across the industrialised world. Agrochemicals, petrochemicals, microplastics, acid rain, and industrial waste are the most prevalent contaminants found in polluted soils. Soils are contaminated in certain cases as a result of agricultural practises such as the use of pesticides, fertilisers, and irrigation water containing microbial pathogens, heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic, and other bio-toxic compounds. Industrial waste is another cause of polluted soil.

Depending on the contaminant, concentration, and exposure, there may be a variety of harmful health impacts when contaminated soil comes into direct contact with people and wildlife through food or dust or indirectly through seeping into drinking water.

Noise pollution and Light pollution

Noise and light pollution, which seem harmless in comparison to plastic, water, and air pollution, may impact ecosystems. The EPA defines light pollution as “excessive brightness that causes discomfort” and noise pollution as “unwanted or irritating sound,” both of which are frequently linked to urbanization. Both light pollution and noise pollution have a negative impact on sleep quality, fitness levels, and behaviour in animals.

Electromagnetic pollution

Today’s technology produces an electromagnetic field, from our mobile phones to our computers to the wi-fi that connects them. This energy has the potential to be poisonous at specific frequencies and exposure levels (for example, strong fields have been shown to cause burns). Nevertheless, it’s still unclear if the present level of electromagnetic radiation exposure is harmful to both human health and animals.

Environmental Pollution and Farming

The by-products of modern agriculture can have unforeseen effects on ecosystems and human health, from pesticides to fertiliser runoff, from greenhouse gas emissions to dangerous particles. Agriculture can contribute to air pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, and even plastic pollution.

As was already said, it can be a source of non-point source water pollution that results in algal blooms. Agricultural pollution has a number of sources, including: Aerial habitats are harmed as a result of sedimentation, which is the clouding of water, which is caused by particulate matter eroding off agriculture fields and entering waterways as runoff. insecticides and other agrochemicals that contaminate soil can harm both above- and below-ground ecosystems.

Agrochemical production, particularly the production of synthetic nitrogen, is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Over 12 million tonnes of agricultural plastics used for weed control are dumped improperly every year. These plastics frequently end up as microplastics in soil and ecosystems.

Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental impact assessments measure or estimate impacts on one or more environmental indicators (air, water, soil, land, sound etc., qualities). An environmental impact assessment’s goal is to provide information to decision-makers regarding issues that can arise as a result of choices made about a new project, programme, plan, or policy.

Environmental impact assessments must enable decision-making based on the facts provided, including any potentially significant aspects, and they must be advantageous to both the proponent and the general public. Environmental impact assessment is also a method that gives an in-depth technical analysis of the environmental effects that a project is anticipated to have, clarifies the magnitude of those effects, and, as a result, identifies the potential for modification or mitigation.

Finally, it requires the relevant ministries/agencies to examine the project’s prospective outcomes before making a decision. Environmental impact assessment techniques can be used by project developers and administrative agencies with a duty for environmental consideration to improve the quality of both the project plan and decision-making by identifying potential consequences in the early phases.

Environmental Sustainability

Many of us automatically go for walks when we are worried or disconnected. To feel more at ease and connected to nature, we seek out forests, parks, beaches, and country roads. Given this, it’s no wonder that human well-being is inextricably related to the health of the environment. Environmental causes cause around 24% of global human mortality, either directly or indirectly. We need and deserve clean air to breathe, pure water to drink, and to live in places free of harmful substances if we want to live long and healthy lives.

Environmental sustainability seeks to increase the quality of human life while minimising the impact on the earth’s sustaining ecosystems. It is all about striking a balance between consumerist human society and the living planet. We may accomplish this by not wasting or depleting natural resources unnecessarily.

Simply said, environmental sustainability is the discipline of engaging appropriately with the world. We do it in order to avoid diminishing natural resources and jeopardizing future generations’ ability to meet their basic requirements.

Environmental Education

The impact on the environment is frequently severe in emergency situations where huge numbers of people may live in densely populated area.

  • Ask the appropriate government ministries if an environmental protection plan has been created as part of the emergency response.
  • Identify the ministry of education staff members who are (or will be) in charge of environmental education. Make sure they receive any instruction that is required.
  • Evaluate the need for environmental education, then build curricula and programs that are skills-based. Identify the changes that must be made to the existing curriculum to ensure that the environmental education component is included.
  • Assist in the creation or enhancement of resources and teaching strategies for environmental education, as well as the evaluation and application of these programmes.
  • Offer advice on how to conduct environmental education programs to civil society organizations and educational authorities in emergency-affected areas.
  • Train educators and provide resources for environmental education.
  • Create programs for nearby populations in refugee or internal displacement circumstances when environmental education initiatives are being carried out in camps.

Environmental Conservation

Human survival is impossible in the absence of a healthy ecology. Our environment includes all living and nonliving elements, as well as their interactions within a natural ecosystem. Environmental conservation has emerged as a critical issue that must be tackled in order to combat climate change and global warming. Sustainable development is the only way to save Mother Earth from the consequences of industrialization.


Environmental conservation is a practise that prepares the way for individuals, organisations, and governments to safeguard the environment and natural resources.

Importance of Environmental Conservation

The following points highlight the critical necessity to protect the environment from further degradation:

  • • To decrease air, water, and land pollution;
  • • To aid in the conservation of natural resources for future generations;
  • • To safeguard biodiversity;
  • • To implement sustainable development;
  • • To restore ecological balance; and
  • • To save our planet from the devastating effects of global warming.

Ways of Conserving the Environment

Here are some ways of conserving the environment:

  1. Deforestation must be halted.
  2. Natural non-renewable resources must be used wisely.
  3. Every year, forest fires kill a large number of forest animals. We need to figure this out.
  4. Afforestation is the most effective strategy to protect the environment.
  5. Raising public awareness
  6. Pollution and population control
  7. Recycle items
  8. Adopt an eco-friendly way of life.
  9. Implement waste management practices.
  10. Species on the verge of extinction must be protected.

Environmental Biology

Environmental Biology is a free and open textbook that helps students gain a thorough understanding of today’s most critical environmental challenges. This college-level free textbook addresses the most pressing environmental concerns from a biological standpoint, assisting students in grasping the scientific underpinning of environmental themes so they can better understand the world around them and their impact on it.

These topic cover under environmental biology

  1. Environmental Science
  2. Energy and Life
  3. Ecosystem and Biosphere
  4. Community and Population Ecology
  5. Conservation and Biodiversity
  6. Environmental Health and Human Hazards
  7. Water Availability and Use
  8. Food and Hunger
  9. Conventional and Sustainable Agriculture
  10. Air Pollution, Climate Change, and  Ozone Depletion
  11. Conventional and Sustainable Energy

Environmental Stewardship

“We define environmental stewardship as the collective duty for environmental quality shared by all those whose actions have an impact on the environment.” This sense of responsibility is a value that may be seen in the choices of individuals, businesses, communities, and government institutions, and it is formed by distinct environmental, social, and economic concerns. It is also a behaviour, as evidenced by a dedication to continual improvement of environmental performance, effective use of natural resources, ecosystem protection, and, where relevant, providing a baseline of compliance with environmental regulations.

Environmental stewardship is not a novel concept. In truth, it has a long and varied history in our country. Natural resources and the beneficial services they give can be found in a variety of situations, from farming to hunting, conservation practises to spiritual beliefs. As we consider how to develop a more sustainable society, it is obvious that environmental stewardship can aid in the preservation of natural resources and the achievement of long-term goals.”

Environmental Organizations

  1. Cultural Survival
  2. A Growing Culture
  3. Native American Traditional Food Systems
  4. Fashion Revolution
  5. Earthjustice
  6. School Girls Unite
  7. Natural Resources Defense Council
  8. American Forests
  9. Conservation International
  10. Eden Projects
  11. One Tree Planted
  12. WeForest
  13. Rainforest Alliance
  14. Jane Goodall Institute
  15. National Audubon Society
  16. Nature Conservancy
  17. Sierra Club
  18. Wildlife Conservation Society\
  19. World Wildlife Fund
  20. 5 Gyres Institute
  21. Blue Sphere Foundation
  22. Lonely Whale Foundation
  23. Oceana
  24. SeaLegacy
  25. org
  26. Cool Effect
  27. Earth Guardians
  28. Greenpeace
  29. Project Drawdown
  30. Fibershed
  31. Regenerative Agriculture Alliance
  32. Regeneration International
  33. The Soil Association
  34. Sustainable Harvest International

Socio-cultural Environment

The term “sociocultural environment” describes patterns and advancements in societal views, behaviour, and beliefs. Population, way of life, culture, preferences, habits, and traditions are all intimately intertwined. These elements are produced by the neighbourhood and frequently inherited from one generation to the next.

Examples of critical sociocultural variables are:

  • Culture
  • Habits
  • Beliefs and values
  • Number and growth of population
  • Age composition
  • Geography
  • Ethnicity
  • Household and family structure
  • Employment
  • Wealth and social class

Natural Environment

Natural environment refers to everything that is unmanmade. The natural environment is made up of land, water, plants, and animals. Let’s explore the various aspects of the natural environment. The lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are these four.


  • The earth’s crust, or hard outer layer, is known as the lithosphere. It is covered in a thin layer of soil and is composed of rocks and minerals. The lithosphere is a surface with uneven landforms like mountains, plateaus, plains, and valleys. It is this area that gives us our forests, grazing land, agricultural land, and residential property. Additionally, it provides minerals.
  • Water’s realm is known as the hydrosphere. It consists of a variety of water bodies, including rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, estuaries, and other water sources. It is necessary for all living things.
  • The thin layer of air that envelops the world is known as the atmosphere. The earth’s gravitational pull holds it in place. The atmosphere shields humans from the sun’s dangerous UV rays by reflecting them away. It contains several gases, including the life-supporting gas oxygen as well as dust and water vapour. Weather and climate are affected by changes in the atmosphere..
  • The biosphere is made up of all life. It is the region of the earth where interactions between air, water, and land support life.

Global Environmental Issues

The term “global environmental issues” describes the impact human activity has on the climate, particularly the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) and extensive deforestation, which result in significant emissions of “greenhouse gases” into the atmosphere, the most significant of which is carbon dioxide. These gases operate as blankets over the Earth’s surface, absorbing infrared radiation that is emitted by the surface and keeping it warmer than it otherwise would be. Climate changes are linked to this warming.

The fundamental science underlying the “greenhouse effect” that causes global warming is widely understood. Numerical climate models that incorporate the fundamental dynamical and physical equations characterising the entire climate system are necessary for a more in-depth understanding. Many of the expected traits of the ensuing climatic changes can be detected, including increased frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events, increased rainfall, and more frequent and intense heat waves.

Due to its detrimental effects on human societies (such as the significant sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary.

International action is being taken by the world’s scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources. This paper presents the first broad based research on the impact of climate change on historic buildings, buried archaeology, parks and gardens Research coincided with the publication of the climate change scenarios and other studies assessing regional climate change and the impact on nature conservation and gardens.

By Rishi

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